What Does MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb, HCT, PLT, MPV, PCT, NEU, LY, MO, EO, RBC Mean in a Blood Test ?

What does MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb, HCT, PLT, MPV, PCT, RBC, NEU%, LY%, MO%, EO%, BA% mean in a CBC blood test, Let’s take a look.

How To Get Blood For CBC Test 

For CBC test, blood is collected in purple colored whole blood (EDTA) test tubes.

If not studied immediately, the tube is stored at 2-8 ° C. Coarse, hemolyzed, frozen and waiting samples are not acceptable.

CBC samples stable at room temperature 12 hours, and 2 days in a refrigator.

CBC or Complete Blood Count analysis is one of the most frequently asked basic screening tests. The blood count findings provide important information about hematology and other systems.

Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) are divided into two basic groups: granulocytes contain neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils, while agranulocytes contain lymphocytes and monocytes.

Leukocytes fight with infections in the body and perform phagocytosis. They are also involved in the production, transport and distribution of antibodies.

The role of Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) is the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.

Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC analyzes are performed on the erythrocytes.

In the anemia, erythrocytes, Hb and Hct are reduced.

 

 

Subparameters of CBC

RBC: Red Blood Cells. The number of erythrocytes in blood.

HGB: Hemoglobin. It shows the total amount of hemoglobin in RBC’s.

HCT: Hematocrit. It shows the ratio of the shaped elements to the whole blood.

MCV: Mean Corpuscular Volume. It is the average size of erythrocytes.

MCH: Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin. It shows the amount of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes.

MCHC: Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration. Erythrocyte is the percentage expression of hemoglobin concentration.

RDW: Red cell Distrubition Width. It shows the distribution width of erythrocytes.

PLT: Platelet. It’s the platelet count.

MPV: Mean Platelet Volume. It is the average size of the platelets.

PDW: Platelet Distrubition Width. Shows the distribution width of platelets.

PCT: Plateletkrit. The ratio of platelets to blood.

WBC: White Blood Cells. It’s leukocyte count.

NEU %: Neutrophil Percentage.

LY %: Lymphocyte Percentage.

MO %: Monocyte Percentage.

EO %: Eosinophil Percentage.

BA %: Basophil Percentage.

LUC %: Large unstained cell percentage.

NRBC %: Nucleated RBC percent.

NEU : Neutrophil count.

LY : Lymphocyte count.

MO : Monocyte count.

EO : Number of eosinophils.

BA :  Number of basophils.

LUC : Number of Large Unstained Cells.

NRBC : Nucleated RBC number.

 

 

Red Blood Cell (RBC)

Carbon dioxide in full-caliber oxygenated tissues is a count of the red spheres responsible for carrying the lungs, and is generally used in the evaluation of anemia.

The number of erythrocytes is between 17 and 07 o’clock and low after meals. Long-term venous stasis, ie the application of a long tourniquet for blood supply, leads to false high results.

Reference Values:

Cord blood: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
Premature: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
0-7 days: 3.9-6.6 million / μL
7 days-1 month: 3.7-6.2 million / μL
2-3 months: 3.1-5.4 million / μL
4-6 months: 3.1-5.3 million / μL
7 months-3 years: 3.7-5.3 million / μL
4-5 years: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
6-12 years: 4.0-5.4 million / μL
13-15 years: Male: 4.25-5.4 million / μL Female: 4.1-5.1 million / μL
15 years and over: Male: 4.3-6.0 million / μL Female: 3.9-5.3 million / μL

Elevated number of Erythrocytes (Polycythemia)

Diarrhea, vomiting

Pulmonary edema

Anaphylactic shock

Mountain disease

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Heart diseases such as mitral valve disease

Pulmonary diseases such as emphysema

Polisitemia rubra vera

Leukemia

Bone marrow tumors

Low Erythrocyte count

Anemies

Leukemia

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

Reference Values (g/dl):

Cord blood: 13.5-20.0
Premature: 13.5-20.0
0 – 7 days: 14.5-22.5
7 days-1 month: 13.5-20.5

Male  -Female:
2-3 months: 10.0 – 14.5   10.0 – 14.0
4-6 months: 9.5-13.5   9.5-13.5
7 months-3 years: 10.5-13.5   10.5-13.5
4-5 years: 11.5 to 13.5  4-5 years: 11.5 to 13.5
6-12 years: 11.5-15.5  6-12 years: 11.5-15.5
13-15 years: 13.0 – 16.0  13-15 years: 12.0 – 16.0
16-50 years: 13.5 – 17.5  16-50 years: 12.0 – 16.0
Age 50 and over: 14.0 – 18.0 > 50 years: 13.0 – 17.0

Elevated Hemoglobin Concentration 

Increase in the number of erythrocytes

Polisitemia vera

Chronic anoxic lung or heart diseases

Hemoconcentration (dehydration, burns, severe vomiting, intestinal obstruction)

Severe exercise

Low Hemoglobin Concentration

The hemoglobin level is between 17 and 07 o’clock and after meals is low.

Long-term venous stasis, ie the application of a long tourniquet for blood supply, leads to false high results.

In males aged 64-75, values ​​fall.

Anemia

G6PDH deficiency

Drug uses leading to anaplastic anemia.

 

 

Hematocrit (HCT)

It is a percentage expression of the cellular part of the blood relative to the fluid part and is generally used in the evaluation of anemia.

Reference Values :

Cord blood: 42-60 %
Premature: 42-60 %
0-7 days: 45-69 %
7 days-1 month: 42-63 %
2-3 months: 31-55 %
4-6 months: 29-41 %
7 months-3 years: 33-39 %
4-5 years: 34-40 %
Age 6-12: 35-45 %
13-15 years Male: 37-49 %  Female: 36-46 %
16-50 years Male: 40-53 % Female: 36-46 %
50 years and older Male: 41-53 %  Female: 36-46 %

High Hematocrit 

Polisitemia rubra vera

COPD

Severe exercise

Hemoconcentration

High altitude

Low Hematocrit 

Anemies

Hemodilution conditions such as in pregnancy

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

Hct x 10 MCV = RBC

In adult males, 80-94 m3 (80-94 fL)

In adult women, 81-99 m3 (81-99 fL)

Increased MCV

Megaloblastic anemia

Macrocytic anemia

Chronic emphysema and chronic bronchitis

Hypothyroidism

Liver diseases

Severe Alcoholism

Postmenopausal women

Use of oral contraceptives

Increased age.

Decreased MCV

Iron deficiency anemia

Idiopathic hypochromia

Chronic bleeding anemia

Pregnancy anemia

Some hemoglobinopathies

Sometimes hyperthyroidism.

Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin (MCH)

Reference Values:

26-34 pg.

Increased MCH Levels

Megalocytic anemia such as pernicious anemia and macroscopic pregnancy anemia, treatment situations with folic acid antagonists,

Protein deficiency anemia

Sferocytosis conditions

Alcohol consumption

After menopause

Use of oral contraceptives

Increased age

Decreases in MCH

Primary iron deficiency anemia

Chronic disease anemia

Thalassemia and some hemoglobinopathies

Bleeding anemies

Idiopathic hypochromia

Pregnancy anemia

Sometimes hyperthyroidism

Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

Reference Values:

31-37 g.

Increased MCHC Levels

Severe diarrhea, long-standing dehydration conditions such as unstoppable vomiting

Severe lipemic conditions

Spherocytosis states

Decreases in MCHC

Iron deficiency anemies

Thalassemia and some hemoglobinopathies

Bleeding anemies

Anemics due to chronic diseases

Pregnancy headache

Water intoxication.

Red Blood Cell Distrubution Width (RDW)

It is the variance of the diameters of all erythrocytes tested and is calculated by the formula:

RDW % = standard deviation of erythrocyte volume (fL) / MCV (fL) × 100

Reference Values: %

Male –     Female:
0 – 4 days: 16.3 – 18      15.8 – 17.8
5 – 8 days: 15.0 -17        14.7 – 16.6
9 – 15 days: 14.9 – 16      14.8 – 16.3
16- 30 days: 14.6 – 16     15.0 – 16.7
1 – 2 months: 14.7 – 16.2  14.2 – 15.6
3 – 6 months: 13.5 – 15.3  13.6 – 14.8
7 months – 2 years: 13.6 – 15.5  13.3 – 14.8
3 to 6 years: 13.2 to 14.5     13.0 to 14.2
7 -12 years: 13.0 – 14.2     12.8 – 13.9
13 – 18 years: 13.0 – 14.6   12.8 – 14.4
Age 19 and over: 11.5 – 14.1   11.3 – 14.7

The earliest finding of iron deficiency is the increase in RDW is considered heterozygote  and normal levels are seen in ß thalassemia.

However, high values can be seen in Hemoglobin H and S Beta Thalassemia.

Increased Conditions of RDW

Nutritional anemia

Myelodysplastic, Megaloblastic, Myelophytosis, Sideroblastic anemia

Homozygous thalassemia

Some hemoglobinopathies

İncreased reticulocytosis

Which change the cell size of erythrocytes.

Chronic disease anemia characterized by homogeneous erythrocytes, acute blood loss, applicative anemia, thalassemia trait, hereditary spherocytosis, Hb E-disease and carriage are in the normal range.

 

White Blood Cell (Leukocyte, WBC)

It is the body’s primary defense cells against infections and diseases.

In general, bacterial infections can be said to have decreased in viral infections.

Increase in leukocyte count (leukocytosis)

Systemic infections

Local infections

Myocardial infarction

Bleeding in the body cavities

Leukemia

Leukemoid reaction

Too much smoking

Pregnancy

Acute hemolysis, following acute haemorrhage

In the early period after splenectomy

Exercise

Menstruation

Exposure to cold

Anesthesia

Birth

Paroxysmal tachycardia

Exposure to sunlight, UV radiation

Epilepsy

Vomiting, nausea

Electric shock, mumps

Water droplets, chronic infections

Lymphomas

Tissue necrosis

Some tumors that hold bone marrow

Drug or metabolic intoxication, hypersensitivity reactions.

Decrease in leukocyte count (leukopenia)

Typhoid and paratyphoid

Brucellosis

Tuberculosis

Some viruses and ricketsia diseases

Plasive anemia, pernicious anemia

Leukemia

Septicemia

At the end of very long bacterial infections,

Hypersplenism

Gaucher’s disease

Felty’s syndrome

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Due to ionizing radiation

Anaflaktik shock and SLE.

Reference value: x K / μL

Male –   Female:
0 – 1 day: 9.0 – 34.0   9.0 – 30.0
2 – 14 days: 5.0 – 21.0  5.0 – 21.0
15 – 29 days: 5.0 – 20.0  5.0 – 20.0
1 – 11 months: 5.0 – 17.0  5.0 – 17.0
1 – 2 years: 6.0 – 13.0  6.0 – 13.0
3 – 11 years: 5.0 – 11.0  5.0 – 11.0
12 to 15 years: 4.7 to 9.9  4.7 to 9.7
Age 16 and over: 3.7 -10   3.9 – 10.5

 

 

Platelet (PLT)

It is the cells that help clot and stop the bleeding.

It is used in different clotting and bleeding disorders.

Some researchers have shown that MPV, mean platelet volume = mean platelet volume, is a very helpful aid for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia.

Reference İntervals:

150.000 – 450.000 / mm3

Excess platelet count (thrombocytosis)

Bone fractures, especially femur neck fractures

Acute thrombocytosis between 7th and 20th days after surgery

Myeloproliferative diseases

Chronic thrombocytosis in Hodgkin’s disease

Polycythemia vera

Inflammatory diseases

Malign diseases

After exercise

Thrombocytopenia has healed.

Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

Hereditary thrombocytopenia

Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome

Isolated thrombocytopenia

May-Hegglin anomaly

Bernard-Soulier syndrome

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

Fanconi syndrome.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Immunological diseases

Idiopathic applanation anemia

Myelophytic process

Megaloblastic anemia

Anemia of severe iron deficiency

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

Splenomegaly

Neoplasms of the immune system

Infections

DIC

Isoimmunization

Liver diseases

Uremia

Massive blood transfusions

Eclampsia

Exposure to physical agents such as X-rays

Septicemia

Infections such as typhoid.

 

 

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