What Does MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb, HCT, PLT, MPV, PCT, NEU, LY, MO, EO, RBC Mean in a CBC Blood Test ?

What does MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb, HCT, PLT, MPV, PCT, RBC, NEU%, LY%, MO%, EO%, BA% mean in a CBC blood test, Let’s take a look.

How To Get Blood For CBC Test 

For CBC test, blood is collected in purple colored whole blood (EDTA) test tubes.

If not studied immediately, the tube is stored at 2-8 ° C. Coarse, hemolyzed, frozen and waiting samples are not acceptable.

CBC samples stable at room temperature 12 hours, and 2 days in a refrigator.

CBC or Complete blood count analysis is one of the most frequently asked basic screening tests. The blood count findings provide important information about hematology and other systems.

Leukocytes (white blood cells) are divided into two basic groups: granulocytes contain neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils, while agranulocytes contain lymphocytes and monocytes.

Leukocytes fight with infections in the body and perform phagocytosis. They are also involved in the production, transport and distribution of antibodies.

The role of erythrocytes (red blood cells) is the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.

Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC analyzes are performed on the erythrocytes.

In the anemia, erythrocytes, Hb and Hct are reduced.

Subparameters of CBC

RBC: Red Blood Cells. The number of erythrocytes in blood.
HGB: Hemoglobin. It shows the total amount of hemoglobin in RBC’s.
HCT: Hematocrit. It shows the ratio of the shaped elements to the whole blood.
MCV: Mean Corpuscular Volume. It is the average size of erythrocytes.
MCH: Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin. It shows the amount of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes.
MCHC: Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration. Erythrocyte is the percentage expression of hemoglobin concentration.
RDW: Red cell Distrubition Width. It shows the distribution width of erythrocytes.
PLT: Platelet. It’s the platelet count.
MPV: Mean Platelet Volume. It is the average size of the platelets.
PDW: Platelet Distrubition Width. Shows the distribution width of platelets.
PCT: Plateletkrit. The ratio of platelets to blood.
WBC: White Blood Cells. It’s leukocyte count.
NEU %: Neutrophil Percentage.
LY %: Lymphocyte Percentage.
MO %: Monocyte Percentage.
EO %: Eosinophil Percentage.
BA %: Basophil Percentage.
LUC %: Large unstained cell percentage.
NRBC %: Nucleated RBC percent.
NEU : Neutrophil count.
LY : Lymphocyte count.
MO : Monocyte count.
EO : Number of eosinophils.
BA :  Number of basophils.
LUC : Number of Large Unstained Cells.
NRBC : Nucleated RBC number.

 

Red Blood Cell (RBC)

Carbon dioxide in full-caliber oxygenated tissues is a count of the red spheres responsible for carrying the lungs, and is generally used in the evaluation of anemia.

The number of erythrocytes is between 17 and 07 o’clock and low after meals. Long-term venous stasis, ie the application of a long tourniquet for blood supply, leads to false high results.

Reference Values:

Cord blood: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
Premature: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
0-7 days: 3.9-6.6 million / μL
7 days-1 month: 3.7-6.2 million / μL
2-3 months: 3.1-5.4 million / μL
4-6 months: 3.1-5.3 million / μL
7 months-3 years: 3.7-5.3 million / μL
4-5 years: 3.9-5.5 million / μL
6-12 years: 4.0-5.4 million / μL
13-15 years: Male: 4.25-5.4 million / μL Female: 4.1-5.1 million / μL
15 years and over: Male: 4.3-6.0 million / μL Female: 3.9-5.3 million / μL

Elevated number of erythrocytes (polycythemia)

• Diarrhea, vomiting
• Pulmonary edema
• Anaphylactic shock
• Mountain disease
• Carbon monoxide poisoning
• Heart diseases such as mitral valve disease
• Pulmonary diseases such as emphysema
• Polisitemia rubra vera
• Leukemia
• Bone marrow tumors

Low erythrocyte count

• Anemies
• Leukemia

Hemoglobin (Hgb)

Reference Values (g/dl):

Cord blood: 13.5-20.0
Premature: 13.5-20.0
0 – 7 days: 14.5-22.5
7 days-1 month: 13.5-20.5

Male  -Female:
2-3 months: 10.0 – 14.5   10.0 – 14.0
4-6 months: 9.5-13.5   9.5-13.5
7 months-3 years: 10.5-13.5   10.5-13.5
4-5 years: 11.5 to 13.5  4-5 years: 11.5 to 13.5
6-12 years: 11.5-15.5  6-12 years: 11.5-15.5
13-15 years: 13.0 – 16.0  13-15 years: 12.0 – 16.0
16-50 years: 13.5 – 17.5  16-50 years: 12.0 – 16.0
Age 50 and over: 14.0 – 18.0 > 50 years: 13.0 – 17.0

Elevated Hemoglobin Concentration

Increase in the number of erythrocytes
Polisitemia vera
Chronic anoxic lung or heart diseases
Hemoconcentration (dehydration, burns, severe vomiting, intestinal obstruction)
Severe exercise

Low Hemoglobin Concentration

The hemoglobin level is between 17 and 07 o’clock and after meals is low.

Long-term venous stasis, ie the application of a long tourniquet for blood supply, leads to false high results.

In males aged 64-75, values ​​fall.
Anemia
G6PDH deficiency
Drug uses leading to anaplastic anemia.

Hematocrit (HCT)

It is a percentage expression of the cellular part of the blood relative to the fluid part and is generally used in the evaluation of anemia.

Reference values :

Cord blood: 42-60%
Premature: 42-60%
0-7 days: 45-69%
7 days-1 month: 42-63%
2-3 months: 31-55%
4-6 months: 29-41%
7 months-3 years: 33-39%
4-5 years: 34-40%
Age 6-12: 35-45%
13-15 years Male: 37-49%  Female: 36-46%
16-50 years Male: 40-53% Female: 36-46%
50 years and older Male: 41-53%  Female: 36-46%

High Hematocrit 

• Polisitemia rubra vera
• COPD
• Severe exercise
• Hemoconcentration
• High altitude

Low Hematocrit 

• Anemies
• Hemodilution conditions such as in pregnancy

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

Hct x 10 MCV = RBC

In adult males, 80-94 m3 (80-94 fL)

In adult women, 81-99 m3 (81-99 fL)

Increased MCV

• Megaloblastic anemia
• Macrocytic anemia
• Chronic emphysema and chronic bronchitis
• Hypothyroidism
• Liver diseases
• Severe Alcoholism
• Postmenopausal women
• Use of oral contraceptives
• Increased age.

Decreased MCV

• Iron deficiency anemia
• Idiopathic hypochromia
• Chronic bleeding anemia
• Pregnancy anemia
• Some hemoglobinopathies
• Sometimes hyperthyroidism.

Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin (MCH)

26-34 pg

Increased situations of MCH

• Megalocytic anemia such as pernicious anemia and macroscopic pregnancy anemia, treatment situations with folic acid antagonists,
• Protein deficiency anemia
• Sferocytosis conditions
• Alcohol consumption
• After menopause
• Use of oral contraceptives
• Increased age

Decreases in MCH

• Primary iron deficiency anemia
• Chronic disease anemia
• Thalassemia and some hemoglobinopathies
• Bleeding anemies
• Idiopathic hypochromia
• Pregnancy anemia
• Sometimes hyperthyroidism

Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)

31-37 g

Increased situations of MCHC

• Severe diarrhea, long-standing dehydration conditions such as unstoppable vomiting
• Severe lipemic conditions
• Spherocytosis states

Decreases in MCHC

• Iron deficiency anemies
• Thalassemia and some hemoglobinopathies
• Bleeding anemies
• Anemics due to chronic diseases
• Pregnancy headache
• Water intoxication.

Red Blood Cell Distrubution Width (RDW)

It is the variance of the diameters of all erythrocytes tested and is calculated by the formula:
RDW % = standard deviation of erythrocyte volume (fL) / MCV (fL) × 100

Reference Values: %

Male – Female:
0 – 4 days: 16.3 – 18      15.8 – 17.8
5 – 8 days: 15.0 -17        14.7 – 16.6
9 – 15 days: 14.9 – 16      14.8 – 16.3
16- 30 days: 14.6 – 16     15.0 – 16.7
1 – 2 months: 14.7 – 16.2  14.2 – 15.6
3 – 6 months: 13.5 – 15.3  13.6 – 14.8
7 months – 2 years: 13.6 – 15.5  13.3 – 14.8
3 to 6 years: 13.2 to 14.5     13.0 to 14.2
7 -12 years: 13.0 – 14.2     12.8 – 13.9
13 – 18 years: 13.0 – 14.6   12.8 – 14.4
Age 19 and over: 11.5 – 14.1   11.3 – 14.7

The earliest finding of iron deficiency is the increase in RDW is considered heterozygote  and normal levels are seen in ß thalassemia.

However, high values can be seen in Hemoglobin H and S Beta Thalassemia.

Increased Conditions of RDW

Nutritional anemia, myelodysplastic, megaloblastic, myelophytosis, sideroblastic anemia, homozygous thalassemia, some hemoglobinopathies, increased reticulocytosis, which change the cell size of erythrocytes.

Chronic disease anemia characterized by homogeneous erythrocytes, acute blood loss, applicative anemia, thalassemia trait, hereditary spherocytosis, Hb E-disease and carriage are in the normal range.

 

White Blood Cell (Leukocyte, WBC)

It is the body’s primary defense cells against infections and diseases. In general, bacterial infections can be said to have decreased in viral infections.

Increase in leukocyte count (leukocytosis)

• Systemic infections
• Local infections
• Myocardial infarction
• Bleeding in the body cavities
• Leukemia
• Leukemoid reaction
• Too much smoking
• Pregnancy
• Acute hemolysis, following acute haemorrhage
• In the early period after splenectomy
• Exercise
• Menstruation
• Exposure to cold
• Anesthesia
• Birth
• Paroxysmal tachycardia
• Exposure to sunlight, UV radiation
• Epilepsy
• Vomiting, nausea
• Electric shock, mumps
• Water droplets, chronic infections
• Lymphomas
• Tissue necrosis
• Some tumors that hold bone marrow
• Drug or metabolic intoxication, hypersensitivity reactions.

Decrease in leukocyte count (leukopenia)

• Typhoid and paratyphoid
• Brucellosis
• Milia tuberculosis
• Some viruses and ricketsia diseases
• Plasive anemia, pernicious anemia
• Aloeic leukemia
• Septicemia
• At the end of very long bacterial infections,
• Hypersplenism
• Gaucher’s disease
• Felty’s syndrome
• Chediak-Higashi syndrome
• Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
• Due to ionizing radiation
• Anaflaktik shock and SLE.

Reference value: x K / μL

Male – Female:
0 – 1 day: 9.0 – 34.0   9.0 – 30.0
2 – 14 days: 5.0 – 21.0  5.0 – 21.0
15 – 29 days: 5.0 – 20.0  5.0 – 20.0
1 – 11 months: 5.0 – 17.0  5.0 – 17.0
1 – 2 years: 6.0 – 13.0  6.0 – 13.0
3 – 11 years: 5.0 – 11.0  5.0 – 11.0
12 to 15 years: 4.7 to 9.9  4.7 to 9.7
Age 16 and over: 3.7 -10   3.9 – 10.5

Platelet (PLT)

It is the cells that help clot and stop the bleeding.

It is used in different clotting and bleeding disorders.

Some researchers have shown that MPV, mean platelet volume = mean platelet volume, is a very helpful aid for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia.

Reference İntervals:

150.000 – 450.000 / mm3

Excess platelet count (thrombocytosis)

• Bone fractures, especially femur neck fractures
• Acute thrombocytosis between 7th and 20th days after surgery
• Myeloproliferative diseases
• Chronic thrombocytosis in Hodgkin’s disease
• Polycythemia vera
• Inflammatory diseases
• Malign diseases
• After exercise
• Thrombocytopenia has healed.

Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

Hereditary thrombocytopenia

• Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome
• Isolated thrombocytopenia
• May-Hegglin anomaly
• Bernard-Soulier syndrome
• Chediak-Higashi syndrome
• Fanconi syndrome.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

• Immunological diseases
• Idiopathic applanation anemia
• Myelophytic process
• Megaloblastic anemia
• Anemia of severe iron deficiency
• Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
• Splenomegaly
• Neoplasms of the immune system
• Infections
• DIC
• Isoimmunization
• Liver diseases
• Uremia
• Massive blood transfusions
• Eclampsia
• Exposure to physical agents such as X-rays
• Septicemia
• Infections such as typhoid.

 

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