Ketone excretion in Urine, the appearance of positive to be seen primarily prolonged hunger, heavy exercise, Pregnancy and Diabetes, but also can be the harbinger of dozens of diseases.
To understand “What is the meaning of Ketone in the Urine”, let’s explain what the “Ketone Bodies” are before.
What are Ketone Bodies ?
Carbohydrates (Glucose) is the main energy source of the organism and is burned inside the cell for energy supply.
If insufficient İnsulin and Hyperglycemia is present, sugar in the blood cannot be inserted into the cell sufficiently and in the face of this condition can not get sugar cells. They cause the emergence of ketones.
Ketone bodies increase in the blood and urine.
Hyperglycemia results in increased Ketone Bodies in blood and urine. Ketone Bodies are substances that are produced during the normal functioning of metabolism and used as energy metabolites by tissues.
However, the production of Ketone Body increases in conditions such as fasting, prolonged severe exercise and uncontrolled Diabetes.
Normally they are found in small amounts in the blood.
The main types are Acetone, Acetoacetic acid and β-Hydroxybutyric Acid.
The precursor molecule of Ketone Bodies is Acetyl CoA. The majority of Acetyl CoAs involved in the production of Ketone Bodies are obtained from the destruction of Fatty Acids.
However, Ketone Bodies are synthesized from the Leucine, İsoleucine, Lysine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine and Tryptophan amino acids.
Ketone Bodies are an important source of energy for peripheral tissues.
Acetyl CoAs present in Liver occur when they exceed the Oxidative capacity of the Liver.
Extra Hepatic tissues such as Skeleton, Heart muscle, Kidney cortex and Brain are used in proportion to the amount in the blood.
The Brain cannot normally use a Ketone Body, but it can be used in cases such as prolonged starvation and uncontrolled Diabetes when glucose is not enough.
Why is Ketone Test made in Urine ?
For routine control in Hospitalized and pre-operative patients, pregnant women, children and patients with Diabetes.
Transition from İnsulin therapy to oral hypoglycemic agents and it is understood that the response to oral hypoglycemicis is not good if Ketonuria occurs within 24 hours.
In Diabetic coma, Ketonuria is not an İnsulin shock, but an auxiliary test in differential diagnosis.
It is used to evaluate the severity of Acidosis and the effectiveness of treatment.
It usually provides more reliable and rapid information than blood tests in the diagnosis of Acidosis.
It also appears in the urine before the Ketone Bodies appear in the blood.
Ketoacidosis is an important cause of intrauterine death, so the detection of Ketone in urine should be taken seriously.
Causes of Ketone Positivity in Urine :
Increased fat metabolism
Reduced carbohydrate intake or excess fat is seen in the diet
Von Gierke Disease (Glycogen Storage Disease)
Extreme Fat diet
Low Carbohydrate Nutrition
After anesthesia such as Ether and Chloroform
Drugs (Levodopa, Merkaptoetan sulfonic acid, Phenylpuric acid, Phenylsulfoftalein, Phenothiazines, Insulin, Alcohol, Metformin, Penicillamine, Pyridinium, Captopril)
Causes of Low Ketone Levels ?
Lond-waited urine (Ketones flies)
They are not normally found in urine.
The test strips generally react to the first 2 of the 3 ketone bodies (Acetoacetic acid, Acetone and b-Hydroxybutyric acid) in the urine.